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AVODART: NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Carcinogenesis: A 2-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice at doses of 3, 35, 250, and 500 mg / kg per day for males and 3, 35, and 250 mg kg per day for females; an increased incidence of benign hepatocellular adenomas was noted at 250 mg / kg per day (290-fold the MRHD of a 0.5 mg daily dose) in female mice only. Two of the 3 major human metabolites have been detected in mice. The exposure to these metabolites in mice is either lower than in humans or is not known.
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in Han Wistar rats, at doses of 1.5, 7.5, and 53 mg / kg per day in males and 0.8, 6.3, and 15 mg / kg per day in females, there was an increase in Leydig cell adenomas in the testes at 135-fold the MRHD (53 mg / kg per day and greater). An increased incidence of Leydig cell hyperplasia was present at 52-fold the MRHD (male rat doses of 7.5 mg / kg per day and greater). A positive correlation between proliferative changes in the Leydig cells and an increase in circulating luteinizing hormone levels has been demonstrated with 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and is consistent with an effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis following 5-alpha-reductase inhibition. At tumorigenic doses, luteinizing hormone levels in rats were increased by 167%. In this study, the major human metabolites were tested for carcinogenicity at approximately 1 to 3 times the expected clinical exposure.
Mutagenesis: Dutasteride was tested for genotoxicity in a bacterial mutagenesis assay (Ames test), a chromosomal aberration assay in CHO cells, and a micronucleus assay in rats. The results did not indicate any genotoxic potential of the parent drug. Two major human metabolites were also negative in either the Ames test or an abbreviated Ames test.
Impairment of fertility: Treatment of sexually mature male rats with dutasteride at 0.1- to 110-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 0.05, 10, 50, and 500 mg / kg per day for up to 31 weeks) resulted in dose- and time-dependent decreases in fertility; reduced cauda epididymal (absolute) sperm counts but not sperm concentration (at 50 and 500 mg / kg per day); reduced weights of the epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles; and microscopic changes in the male reproductive organs. The fertility effects were reversed by recovery week 6 at all doses, and sperm counts were normal at the end of a 14-week recovery period. The 5-alpha-reductase-related changes consisted of cytoplasmic vacuolation of tubular epithelium in the epididymides and decreased cytoplasmic content of epithelium, consistent with decreased secretory activity in the prostate and seminal vesicles. The microscopic changes were no longer present at recovery week 14 in the low-dose group and were partly recovered in the remaining treatment groups. Low levels of dutasteride (0.6 to 17 ng / mL) were detected in the serum of untreated female rats mated to males dosed at 10, 50, or 500 mg / kg per day for 29 to 30 weeks.
In a fertility study in female rats, oral administration of dutasteride at doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, and 30 mg / kg per day resulted in reduced litter size, increased embryo resorption, and feminization of male fetuses (decreased anogenital distance) at 2- to 10-fold the MRHD (animal doses of 2.5 mg / kg per day or greater). Fetal body weights were also reduced at less than 0.02-fold the MRHD in rats (0.5 mg / kg per day).
Animal toxicology and / or pharmacology
Central nervous system toxicology studies: In rats and dogs, repeated oral administration of dutasteride resulted in some animals showing signs of non-specific, reversible, centrally-mediated toxicity without associated histopathological changes at exposures 425- and 315-fold the expected clinical exposure (of parent drug), respectively.
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